《香港简史》与《香港第一课》笔记

在香港殖民時代的歷史裏,大部分時間都是中國有難,也就是説,香港往往接收大批從內地湧入的移民。
早期英國駐港衛戍部隊是以盧比付餉 ,在 1860年代前,盧比是香港廣泛使用的貨幣,在 1864年滙鹽銀行成立之前,大多數在香港和中國的西方銀行都是英印銀行的分行。
在 1970年代初以前 ,香港總督都是由英國殖民地部官員出任。
到了1960年代,香港警隊的組織仍是沿用傳統的殖民地模式,高級警察大多數是來自非洲 、馬來亞和巴勒斯坦的外籍資深警官,而低級警察則一般是華人。
中式小商店恰如其分地座落在以英圍皇室成員和官員命名的街道上,而英國法律、基督教和現代西方醫學則與各種中國事物並行不悖,包括傳統中醫、幾百間中國廟宇、眾多宗教節日和儀式,以及最現代化的西式建築和2005年開幕的新迪士尼樂園都採用寧可信其有的風水學説。
這裏的殖民統治絕不令宗主國難堪,相較於大多數獨立圍家,香港的經濟表現有過之而無不及。
殖民地大臣斯坦利勳爵(Lord Stanley)在1843年説,佔領香港「並非為了殖民,而是由於外交、商業和軍事目的」。
即使廣州當局命令香港華人抵抗「外夷」 ,英國首次佔領香港島時完全沒遇抵抗。
1877年一名來訪的英園人抱怨英團軍官虐待華人,「彷彿他們是極低等的動物」,歐籍人對待華裔人力車夫的態度往往十分惡劣粗魯,不把車資交到車夫手上,而是丟在地上,還常常對他們拳打腳踢。
歐亞混血兒「受到雙重猜疑,首先是因為他們擁有與眾不同的身份,另一方面因為他們其實沒有真正的身份,既非此亦非彼,結果被視為不光明正大和投機取巧」。香港的英國人從不把種族通婚視為能促進和諧與穩定的良法。
在1880年代前,立法局議員幾乎全無華人。儘管這個基本憲政架構多年下來有一些小修小改,但在1980年代之前,並沒有經歷重大改變。
直至十九世纪末,政府和歐籍居民愈來愈認為香港華人大多數是罪犯 。香港的刑事司法制度創造專門針對華人的新罪名和懲罰 。
在早期香港的司法,殖民地官員常聲稱法律公正無偏,但事實卻是相反。法院往往先入為主,認定華人被告有罪。
1866 年頒佈的《維多利亞城戶口登記條例》,要求華人家庭和為歐籍人工作的華人僕役登記。1870年頒佈的《十四號條例》,要求所有維多利亞城華人在入夜後須提燈籠上街。1888 年頒佈的《管理華人條例》規定,除了舉行宗教儀式和逄年過節外,華人未經總督批准,不得舉行公眾集會,同年頒佈的《歐人住宅區保留條例》規定,城中若干主要地段只可興建西式洋房 。
1899年的《傳召華人條例》 (Summoning of Chinese Ordinance)授懽總登記官「調査和報告任何與新界有關的事情……前提是此事所牽涉及的只有華人」。
1923 年孫中山在香港大學演講,宣稱他的革命思想發源地「 即為香港」。他説,「外人能於七八十年問在一荒島上成此偉績,中圍以四千年之文明乃無一地如香港者,其故安在? 」
1911年,東華醫院籌集食物賑濟逃避兵煚的難民,學生和商人募款支持起義軍,剪髮匠免費替人剪辮子 (清廷強迫清帝國所有男子像滿人一樣留辮子),愛圍妓女則宣佈捐出一半收入資助革命事業。
在兩次大戰之間的歲月,面對中圍民族主義日益高漲,英國官員曾經幾次建議交還香港,以表示英國的善意,他們認為英國已不再需要一個殖民地來保持在華的商業利益。
1940年代,在殖民地政府和歐資公司任職的華人,到達某一職級就無法再晉升。雖然歐資公司聘用華人僱員,但幾乎全非高層職位。滙豐銀行的政策是不會讓華人進入董事會。滙豐銀行不贊成其歐籍主管人員娶非英籍女性為妻; 在第二次世界大戰以前,沒有一名銀行主管與華人結婚。
在第二次世界大戰爆發前夕到訪香港的政治學家説 : 「雖然英園人和華人有各自的俱樂部,並且整體上種族之間的交往十分有限,但在印度引致麻煩不斷的種族摩擦,卻不見於香港。他們(華人的優越感很強,完全沒有許多印度人那種神經過敏和自卑感,這些感覺令印度人對於被排除於西方人社會感到忿忿不平和痛苦。」
在1914年,歐籍警員的薪金比本地華鏵或印籍警員高出逾七倍,而到了1939年,低階歐籍警員的待遇幾乎是同級華人警察的八倍 。
在1942年中,殖民地部承認戰後可能須把香港歸還中國。甚至在1945年末,英國外交部中國司司長凱特森(George Kitson)也建議英國交還香港,以達到象徵和實質的目的。
曾把香港稱為「一座荒島」的毛澤東主席,據説在1946年曾向英國記者説,他本人和中园共產黨都對香港不感興趣,只要英圉人不苛待香港華人,他不會讓香港的地位損害中英兩國關係。在1948年11 月,中共的新華社香港分社社長喬冠華向香港政府保證,新的共產黨政府不會找香港麻煩,它甚至容許殖民地政府為國民黨領袖提供庇護。
在1981年前,市政局是唯一有民選議員的議會。有高級官員建議改組行政局,遭到麥理浩否決。
直至1980年代中,過半數高級公務員職位仍由外籍人把持,政府常指本地華人不具備合適的品格、資質、眼界,或對公共事務缺乏興趣,以此為它不願意聘任本地人的藉口。
港督葛量洪在1962年寫道,過去「大部分華人」對香港沒有歸屬感,但「自從共產黨統治中圍後,情況有所改變,現在很少香港華人打算返回這個他們出生的國家,而逐漸成為永久定居香港的市民」。香港人把香港的政治穩定和經濟自由,對照於內地的壓迫和混亂,尤其是在大躍進和文化大革命時期,因此,在1960和1970年代,更多本地出生的華人開始視香港為家。
1985年的一項調査顯示:五分之三的香港華人視自己為香港人,而非中圍人。
葡萄牙在1974年建議歸還澳門,被中國政府拒絕,許多香港人視之為吉兆,顯示中國可能也不願意收回香港。
在對香港的統治步入尾聲前一直拒絕實行代議政制的英國人,在臨近九七的時候搖身一變,忽然成為民主改革的堅定推動者。
英國統治下的香港,許多居民擁有很高的生活水準。到了1990年代初,香港人均收入更超越英國。
在九七倒數的時候,西方傳媒把香港形容為民主、自由表達和繁榮的堡壘,常常忽略香港長期以來是缺乏民主和言論自由的殖民地。
直至英治時代的最後歲月,政府高級職位一直是歐籍人的禁臠,理由是華人不具資格或不可信。如顧汝德所言,政治權力「過去一直牢牢掌握在殖民地官員手中。這些官員在這裏語言不通、文化不同, 他們和其他歐籍人是此地的少數民族,但卻純粹因為他們的種族而享有優越的地位和影響力」。
「在英國統治最後十年前,香港立法機關一直沒有直選議席的真正原因,是殖民地文化沾沾自滿,又不信任本地華人。」
1996年1月和5月所做的調査顯示,只有五分之一的受訪年輕人認為內地人可以信賴,而超過四分之三的人認為自己是香港人,而非中圍人。


⼤陆传媒常把⼴东省东江供水香港视为中央政府对香港的支持,其实深圳和东莞同样要靠东江供⽔水,但广东省对香港收取的水价却是深圳和东莞的5倍。2009年⼴东出现旱灾,香港政府曾提议减少供水以舒缓广东旱情,却被广东省方面拒绝,足以说明广东省视供水为商业交易,谈不上刻意让利。
当香港于1941年被日军占领的时候,人口有一百多万。到了1945年二战结束时,因为战时不少人返乡避难,香港人口只剩约60万人。然而到了1949年,⼈口总数却暴增至220万。
所谓香港人,主要就是一群因为害怕共产党而逃出中国大陆的人,及其后代。从这句话出发,很多香港人的特质和对中国大陆的态度,以至香港社会中的各种现象,都变得有迹可寻。
到了1970年代初,香港人口已增加至 400万。
当一大批的移民在1950年代来到香港并生⼉育女,形成战后的婴儿潮,那么到了20年后的1970年代,就会有一大批从1950年代起在香港土生土长的年轻人成年,并投身社会。
除了百万人上街大游行和在马场举行连续12小时的“民主歌声献中华”之外,尚有很多今天意想不到的人物和团体表达支持,例如色情刊物《龙虎豹》也发动义卖支持北京学生。
同期报章又常有各界刊登广告表示支持北京学生,要求官方撤销戒严和解除新闻封锁,当中包括商界领袖如李嘉诚、何鸿燊、郑裕彤、李兆基、郭炳江等,又有政界领袖如曾钰成、唐英年、梁爱诗、⽥北俊和梁锦松,还有后来当上香港行政长官的梁振英。
香港革新会在1982年的民意调查就显示,有七成市民希望香港在1997年后维持为英国殖民地,一成半 的市民支持改由联合国托管香港,只有4%的市⺠支持被中国收回并受中国管治。
在这种“资本就是爱国”的热潮下,疯狂得就连香港男士到东莞寻求性服务也会自认是爱国行为,还会戏称自己是“救国炮兵团”。
在1990年代的初期,香港社会对中央政府不信任的市民远远多于信任,数据净值一直徘徊在负30 点。到了1997年末,数据回到大约零点,即信任和不信任的一样多。数据达到最高点的时间是2008年年初,四川地震至北京奥运前的一段时间。不过数据自此急速下跌,到了2012年后又回复到负数范围。
近年却有研究显示,当社会停滞不前,年轻人分享不到发展成果时,也会走向追求非物质价值。
⾸先,香港人并非全都是中国人。香港是一个国际城市,即使不是中华⼈民共和国民的外国人也可以成为香港永久性居民。香港有十万的外籍人口居留甚至定居,例如不少南亚少数族裔就是连续几代人都在香港生活,却没有入籍成为中国公民,拿的仍然是南亚各国的护照。即使《基本法》第67条也尊重这个客观现实,容许一定比例的非中国公民和持外国居留权人士成为立法会议员。
调查显示在1997年8月,共有19%的受访者认为自⼰是中国人;到了2008年6月,也就是汶川地震发生后和北京奥运开始前的时间,比例上升至39%,上升超过一倍。
按照《基本法》,除了终审法院和高等法院的首席法官“应由在外国无居留留权的香港特别行政区永久性居民中的中国公民担任”外,香港的法官没有国籍限制。
如果香港有一个充分的民主制度,大可透过行政长官普选去决定社会要走的方向。当行政长官未能以民主选举方式产生,市民便转向靠立法会议员来表达不满。当立法会也未能有效运作,市民便唯有通过司法覆核等方式请求司法机构主持公道。到了连司法机构也失去其应有地位,是否就代表社会不会再有争议?当然不是。相反,当争议无法在制度内得到有效处理,便会在制度外寻求出口,形成更难解决的社会矛盾。
香港中文大学传播与民意调查中心于2017年所做的调查,只有11.4%的受访者支持香港于2047年后独立,表示反对的却有 60.2%,可见港独即使作为一个假设选项也没有多大的支持度。⽀持届时继续⼀一国两制的,则有71.2%,明显是社会主流。不过,在同一调查当中,有62.9%的受访者认为“香港回归后整体社会状况”变差。
今天的中国,浮游着一种唯经济、唯发展、唯技术、唯实力的决定论,以为它们可解决一切问题。然而香港的经历说明,这只是特定时空下的产物,终有一天会到达瓶颈。当社会流动开始减慢,当各种问题已不能再通过发展来解决,就不得不面对一些更深层次的问题:价值观的问题、制度的问题,甚至是上面提出的系统性败坏。

《《香港简史》与《香港第一课》笔记》有253个想法

  1. 「在對香港的統治步入尾聲前一直拒絕實行代議政制的英國人,在臨近九七的時候搖身一變,忽然成為民主改革的堅定推動者。(……)在九七倒數的時候,西方傳媒把香港形容為民主、自由表達和繁榮的堡壘,常常忽略香港長期以來是缺乏民主和言論自由的殖民地。」
    「香港人并非全都是中国人。香港是一个国际城市,即使不是中华⼈民共和国民的外国人也可以成为香港永久性居民。香港有十万的外籍人口居留甚至定居,例如不少南亚少数族裔就是连续几代人都在香港生活,却没有入籍成为中国公民,拿的仍然是南亚各国的护照。即使《基本法》第67条也尊重这个客观现实,容许一定比例的非中国公民和持外国居留权人士成为立法会议员。」
    這兩點很有意思。一直以來忽視了。
    感謝博主分享。

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